PHP logo

PHP Version 7.3.18

System Linux ip-172-26-11-32 4.19.0-14-cloud-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.19.171-2 (2021-01-30) x86_64
Build Date Jun 9 2020 13:01:57
Configure Command './configure' '--prefix=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/php' '--enable-fpm' '--with-fpm-user=daemon' '--with-fpm-group=daemon' '--with-apxs2=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/apache2/bin/apxs' '--with-zlib-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-mbstring=all' '--enable-soap' '--enable-bcmath' '--enable-ftp' '--with-xmlrpc' '--enable-cgi' '--with-imap=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/src/imap-2007f' '--with-imap-ssl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-png-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gd' '--with-zlib' '--with-curl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-jpeg-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-exif' '--with-openssl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-calendar' '--enable-ctype' '--enable-pcntl' '--enable-session' '--enable-zip' '--with-bz2=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-sockets' '--with-mcrypt=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-icu-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-tidy=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-mysqli=mysqlnd' '--with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd' '--with-pdo_sqlite=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/sqlite' '--with-sqlite3=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/sqlite' '--with-iconv=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-libxml-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-xsl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-mbstring' '--with-freetype-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gmp=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gettext' '--enable-intl' '--with-readline=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-libzip=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-ldap=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--disable-huge-code-pages'
Server API FPM/FastCGI
Virtual Directory Support disabled
Configuration File (php.ini) Path /bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/php/lib
Loaded Configuration File /opt/bitnami/php/etc/php.ini
Scan this dir for additional .ini files (none)
Additional .ini files parsed (none)
PHP API 20180731
PHP Extension 20180731
Zend Extension 320180731
Zend Extension Build API320180731,NTS
PHP Extension Build API20180731,NTS
Debug Build no
Thread Safety disabled
Zend Signal Handling enabled
Zend Memory Manager enabled
Zend Multibyte Support provided by mbstring
IPv6 Support enabled
DTrace Support disabled
Registered PHP Streamshttps, ftps, compress.zlib, compress.bzip2, php, file, glob, data, http, ftp, phar, zip
Registered Stream Socket Transportstcp, udp, unix, udg, ssl, tls, tlsv1.0, tlsv1.1, tlsv1.2
Registered Stream Filterszlib.*, bzip2.*, convert.iconv.*, string.rot13, string.toupper, string.tolower, string.strip_tags, convert.*, consumed, dechunk
Zend logo This program makes use of the Zend Scripting Language Engine:
Zend Engine v3.3.18, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies
    with Zend OPcache v7.3.18, Copyright (c) 1999-2018, by Zend Technologies

Configuration

bcmath

BCMath support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
bcmath.scale00

bz2

BZip2 Support Enabled
Stream Wrapper support compress.bzip2://
Stream Filter support bzip2.decompress, bzip2.compress
BZip2 Version 1.0.6, 6-Sept-2010

calendar

Calendar support enabled

cgi-fcgi

php-fpm active
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
cgi.discard_path00
cgi.fix_pathinfo11
cgi.force_redirect11
cgi.nph00
cgi.redirect_status_envno valueno value
cgi.rfc2616_headers00
fastcgi.error_headerno valueno value
fastcgi.logging11
fpm.configno valueno value

Core

PHP Version 7.3.18
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
allow_url_fopenOnOn
allow_url_includeOffOff
arg_separator.input&&
arg_separator.output&&
auto_append_fileno valueno value
auto_globals_jitOnOn
auto_prepend_fileno valueno value
browscapno valueno value
default_charsetUTF-8UTF-8
default_mimetypetext/htmltext/html
disable_classesno valueno value
disable_functionsno valueno value
display_errorsOffOff
display_startup_errorsOffOff
doc_rootno valueno value
docref_extno valueno value
docref_rootno valueno value
enable_dlOffOff
enable_post_data_readingOnOn
error_append_stringno valueno value
error_logno valueno value
error_prepend_stringno valueno value
error_reporting498322527
expose_phpOnOn
extension_dir/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php/extensions/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php/extensions
file_uploadsOnOn
hard_timeout22
highlight.comment#FF8000#FF8000
highlight.default#0000BB#0000BB
highlight.html#000000#000000
highlight.keyword#007700#007700
highlight.string#DD0000#DD0000
html_errorsOnOn
ignore_repeated_errorsOffOff
ignore_repeated_sourceOffOff
ignore_user_abortOffOff
implicit_flushOffOff
include_path.:/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php.:/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php
input_encodingno valueno value
internal_encodingno valueno value
log_errorsOnOn
log_errors_max_len10241024
mail.add_x_headerOffOff
mail.force_extra_parametersno valueno value
mail.logno valueno value
max_execution_time120120
max_file_uploads2020
max_input_nesting_level6464
max_input_time300300
max_input_vars10001000
memory_limit512M512M
open_basedirno valueno value
output_buffering40964096
output_encodingno valueno value
output_handlerno valueno value
post_max_size40M40M
precision1414
realpath_cache_size4096K4096K
realpath_cache_ttl120120
register_argc_argvOffOff
report_memleaksOnOn
report_zend_debugOnOn
request_orderGPGP
sendmail_fromno valueno value
sendmail_path/usr/bin/sendmail -t -i /usr/bin/sendmail -t -i 
serialize_precision-1-1
short_open_tagOffOff
SMTPlocalhostlocalhost
smtp_port2525
sys_temp_dirno valueno value
syslog.facilityLOG_USERLOG_USER
syslog.filterno-ctrlno-ctrl
syslog.identphpphp
track_errorsOffOff
unserialize_callback_funcno valueno value
upload_max_filesize40M40M
upload_tmp_dir/opt/bitnami/php/tmp/opt/bitnami/php/tmp
user_dirno valueno value
user_ini.cache_ttl300300
user_ini.filename.user.ini.user.ini
variables_orderGPCSGPCS
xmlrpc_error_number00
xmlrpc_errorsOffOff
zend.assertions-1-1
zend.detect_unicodeOnOn
zend.enable_gcOnOn
zend.multibyteOffOff
zend.script_encodingno valueno value
zend.signal_checkOffOff

ctype

ctype functions enabled

curl

cURL support enabled
cURL Information 7.70.0
Age 6
Features
AsynchDNS Yes
CharConv No
Debug No
GSS-Negotiate No
IDN No
IPv6 Yes
krb4 No
Largefile Yes
libz Yes
NTLM Yes
NTLMWB Yes
SPNEGO No
SSL Yes
SSPI No
TLS-SRP Yes
HTTP2 No
GSSAPI No
KERBEROS5 No
UNIX_SOCKETS Yes
PSL No
HTTPS_PROXY Yes
MULTI_SSL No
BROTLI No
Protocols dict, file, ftp, ftps, gopher, http, https, imap, imaps, ldap, ldaps, pop3, pop3s, rtsp, smb, smbs, smtp, smtps, telnet, tftp
Host x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
SSL Version OpenSSL/1.1.1d
ZLib Version 1.2.11
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
curl.cainfo/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt

date

date/time support enabled
timelib version 2018.03
"Olson" Timezone Database Version 2020.1
Timezone Database internal
Default timezone UTC
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
date.default_latitude31.766731.7667
date.default_longitude35.233335.2333
date.sunrise_zenith90.58333390.583333
date.sunset_zenith90.58333390.583333
date.timezoneUTCUTC

dom

DOM/XML enabled
DOM/XML API Version 20031129
libxml Version 2.9.4
HTML Support enabled
XPath Support enabled
XPointer Support enabled
Schema Support enabled
RelaxNG Support enabled

exif

EXIF Support enabled
Supported EXIF Version 0220
Supported filetypes JPEG, TIFF
Multibyte decoding support using mbstring enabled
Extended EXIF tag formats Canon, Casio, Fujifilm, Nikon, Olympus, Samsung, Panasonic, DJI, Sony, Pentax, Minolta, Sigma, Foveon, Kyocera, Ricoh, AGFA, Epson
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
exif.decode_jis_intelJISJIS
exif.decode_jis_motorolaJISJIS
exif.decode_unicode_intelUCS-2LEUCS-2LE
exif.decode_unicode_motorolaUCS-2BEUCS-2BE
exif.encode_jisno valueno value
exif.encode_unicodeISO-8859-15ISO-8859-15

fileinfo

fileinfo support enabled
libmagic 533

filter

Input Validation and Filtering enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
filter.defaultunsafe_rawunsafe_raw
filter.default_flagsno valueno value

ftp

FTP support enabled
FTPS support enabled

gd

GD Support enabled
GD Version bundled (2.1.0 compatible)
FreeType Support enabled
FreeType Linkage with freetype
FreeType Version 2.4.8
GIF Read Support enabled
GIF Create Support enabled
JPEG Support enabled
libJPEG Version 8
PNG Support enabled
libPNG Version 1.5.26
WBMP Support enabled
XBM Support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
gd.jpeg_ignore_warning11

gettext

GetText Support enabled

gmp

gmp support enabled
GMP version 6.1.1

hash

hash support enabled
Hashing Engines md2 md4 md5 sha1 sha224 sha256 sha384 sha512/224 sha512/256 sha512 sha3-224 sha3-256 sha3-384 sha3-512 ripemd128 ripemd160 ripemd256 ripemd320 whirlpool tiger128,3 tiger160,3 tiger192,3 tiger128,4 tiger160,4 tiger192,4 snefru snefru256 gost gost-crypto adler32 crc32 crc32b fnv132 fnv1a32 fnv164 fnv1a64 joaat haval128,3 haval160,3 haval192,3 haval224,3 haval256,3 haval128,4 haval160,4 haval192,4 haval224,4 haval256,4 haval128,5 haval160,5 haval192,5 haval224,5 haval256,5

iconv

iconv support enabled
iconv implementation glibc
iconv library version 1.15
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
iconv.input_encodingno valueno value
iconv.internal_encodingno valueno value
iconv.output_encodingno valueno value

imagick

imagick moduleenabled
imagick module version 3.4.3
imagick classes Imagick, ImagickDraw, ImagickPixel, ImagickPixelIterator, ImagickKernel
Imagick compiled with ImageMagick version ImageMagick 6.9.8-3 Q16 x86_64 2020-06-09 http://www.imagemagick.org
Imagick using ImageMagick library version ImageMagick 6.9.8-3 Q16 x86_64 2020-06-09 http://www.imagemagick.org
ImageMagick copyright © 1999-2017 ImageMagick Studio LLC
ImageMagick release date 2020-06-09
ImageMagick number of supported formats: 226
ImageMagick supported formats 3FR, 3G2, 3GP, AAI, AI, ART, ARW, AVI, AVS, BGR, BGRA, BGRO, BMP, BMP2, BMP3, BRF, CAL, CALS, CANVAS, CAPTION, CIN, CIP, CLIP, CMYK, CMYKA, CR2, CRW, CUR, CUT, DATA, DCM, DCR, DCX, DDS, DFONT, DNG, DOT, DPX, DXT1, DXT5, EPDF, EPI, EPS, EPS2, EPS3, EPSF, EPSI, EPT, EPT2, EPT3, ERF, FAX, FILE, FITS, FRACTAL, FTP, FTS, G3, G4, GIF, GIF87, GRADIENT, GRAY, GROUP4, GV, H, HALD, HDR, HISTOGRAM, HRZ, HTM, HTML, HTTP, HTTPS, ICB, ICO, ICON, IIQ, INFO, INLINE, IPL, ISOBRL, ISOBRL6, JNG, JNX, JPE, JPEG, JPG, JPS, JSON, K25, KDC, LABEL, M2V, M4V, MAC, MAGICK, MAP, MASK, MAT, MATTE, MEF, MIFF, MKV, MNG, MONO, MOV, MP4, MPC, MPEG, MPG, MRW, MSL, MSVG, MTV, MVG, NEF, NRW, NULL, ORF, OTB, OTF, PAL, PALM, PAM, PANGO, PATTERN, PBM, PCD, PCDS, PCL, PCT, PCX, PDB, PDF, PDFA, PEF, PES, PFA, PFB, PFM, PGM, PICON, PICT, PIX, PJPEG, PLASMA, PNG, PNG00, PNG24, PNG32, PNG48, PNG64, PNG8, PNM, PPM, PREVIEW, PS, PS2, PS3, PSB, PSD, PTIF, PWP, RADIAL-GRADIENT, RAF, RAS, RAW, RGB, RGBA, RGBO, RGF, RLA, RLE, RMF, RW2, SCR, SCT, SFW, SGI, SHTML, SIX, SIXEL, SPARSE-COLOR, SR2, SRF, STEGANO, SUN, SVG, SVGZ, TEXT, TGA, THUMBNAIL, TIFF, TIFF64, TILE, TIM, TTC, TTF, TXT, UBRL, UBRL6, UIL, UYVY, VDA, VICAR, VID, VIFF, VIPS, VST, WBMP, WEBP, WMF, WMV, WMZ, WPG, X3F, XBM, XC, XCF, XPM, XPS, XV, YCbCr, YCbCrA, YUV
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
imagick.locale_fix00
imagick.progress_monitor00
imagick.skip_version_check00

imap

IMAP c-Client Version 2007f
SSL Support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
imap.enable_insecure_rshOffOff

intl

Internationalization supportenabled
ICU version 66.1
ICU Data version 66.1
ICU TZData version 2019c
ICU Unicode version 13.0
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
intl.default_localeno valueno value
intl.error_level00
intl.use_exceptions00

json

json support enabled
json version 1.7.0

ldap

LDAP Support enabled
Total Links 0/unlimited
API Version 3001
Vendor Name OpenLDAP
Vendor Version 20423
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
ldap.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited

libxml

libXML support active
libXML Compiled Version 2.9.4
libXML Loaded Version 20904
libXML streams enabled

mbstring

Multibyte Support enabled
Multibyte string engine libmbfl
HTTP input encoding translation disabled
libmbfl version 1.3.2
oniguruma version 6.9.4
mbstring extension makes use of "streamable kanji code filter and converter", which is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1.
Multibyte (japanese) regex support enabled
Multibyte regex (oniguruma) backtrack check On
Multibyte regex (oniguruma) version 6.9.4
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mbstring.detect_orderno valueno value
mbstring.encoding_translationOffOff
mbstring.func_overload00
mbstring.http_inputno valueno value
mbstring.http_outputno valueno value
mbstring.http_output_conv_mimetypes^(text/|application/xhtml\+xml)^(text/|application/xhtml\+xml)
mbstring.internal_encodingno valueno value
mbstring.languageneutralneutral
mbstring.regex_stack_limit100000100000
mbstring.strict_detectionOffOff
mbstring.substitute_characterno valueno value

mysqli

MysqlI Supportenabled
Client API library version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
Active Persistent Links 0
Inactive Persistent Links 0
Active Links 0
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mysqli.allow_local_infileOffOff
mysqli.allow_persistentOnOn
mysqli.default_hostno valueno value
mysqli.default_port33063306
mysqli.default_pwno valueno value
mysqli.default_socket/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
mysqli.default_userno valueno value
mysqli.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited
mysqli.max_persistentUnlimitedUnlimited
mysqli.reconnectOffOff
mysqli.rollback_on_cached_plinkOffOff

mysqlnd

mysqlndenabled
Version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
Compression supported
core SSL supported
extended SSL supported
Command buffer size 4096
Read buffer size 32768
Read timeout 86400
Collecting statistics Yes
Collecting memory statistics No
Tracing n/a
Loaded plugins mysqlnd,debug_trace,auth_plugin_mysql_native_password,auth_plugin_mysql_clear_password,auth_plugin_sha256_password
API Extensions mysqli,pdo_mysql
mysqlnd statistics
bytes_sent 0
bytes_received 0
packets_sent 0
packets_received 0
protocol_overhead_in 0
protocol_overhead_out 0
bytes_received_ok_packet 0
bytes_received_eof_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_header_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_field_meta_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_row_packet 0
bytes_received_prepare_response_packet 0
bytes_received_change_user_packet 0
packets_sent_command 0
packets_received_ok 0
packets_received_eof 0
packets_received_rset_header 0
packets_received_rset_field_meta 0
packets_received_rset_row 0
packets_received_prepare_response 0
packets_received_change_user 0
result_set_queries 0
non_result_set_queries 0
no_index_used 0
bad_index_used 0
slow_queries 0
buffered_sets 0
unbuffered_sets 0
ps_buffered_sets 0
ps_unbuffered_sets 0
flushed_normal_sets 0
flushed_ps_sets 0
ps_prepared_never_executed 0
ps_prepared_once_executed 0
rows_fetched_from_server_normal 0
rows_fetched_from_server_ps 0
rows_buffered_from_client_normal 0
rows_buffered_from_client_ps 0
rows_fetched_from_client_normal_buffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_normal_unbuffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_buffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_unbuffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_cursor 0
rows_affected_normal 0
rows_affected_ps 0
rows_skipped_normal 0
rows_skipped_ps 0
copy_on_write_saved 0
copy_on_write_performed 0
command_buffer_too_small 0
connect_success 0
connect_failure 0
connection_reused 0
reconnect 0
pconnect_success 0
active_connections 0
active_persistent_connections 0
explicit_close 0
implicit_close 0
disconnect_close 0
in_middle_of_command_close 0
explicit_free_result 0
implicit_free_result 0
explicit_stmt_close 0
implicit_stmt_close 0
mem_emalloc_count 0
mem_emalloc_amount 0
mem_ecalloc_count 0
mem_ecalloc_amount 0
mem_erealloc_count 0
mem_erealloc_amount 0
mem_efree_count 0
mem_efree_amount 0
mem_malloc_count 0
mem_malloc_amount 0
mem_calloc_count 0
mem_calloc_amount 0
mem_realloc_count 0
mem_realloc_amount 0
mem_free_count 0
mem_free_amount 0
mem_estrndup_count 0
mem_strndup_count 0
mem_estrdup_count 0
mem_strdup_count 0
mem_edupl_count 0
mem_dupl_count 0
proto_text_fetched_null 0
proto_text_fetched_bit 0
proto_text_fetched_tinyint 0
proto_text_fetched_short 0
proto_text_fetched_int24 0
proto_text_fetched_int 0
proto_text_fetched_bigint 0
proto_text_fetched_decimal 0
proto_text_fetched_float 0
proto_text_fetched_double 0
proto_text_fetched_date 0
proto_text_fetched_year 0
proto_text_fetched_time 0
proto_text_fetched_datetime 0
proto_text_fetched_timestamp 0
proto_text_fetched_string 0
proto_text_fetched_blob 0
proto_text_fetched_enum 0
proto_text_fetched_set 0
proto_text_fetched_geometry 0
proto_text_fetched_other 0
proto_binary_fetched_null 0
proto_binary_fetched_bit 0
proto_binary_fetched_tinyint 0
proto_binary_fetched_short 0
proto_binary_fetched_int24 0
proto_binary_fetched_int 0
proto_binary_fetched_bigint 0
proto_binary_fetched_decimal 0
proto_binary_fetched_float 0
proto_binary_fetched_double 0
proto_binary_fetched_date 0
proto_binary_fetched_year 0
proto_binary_fetched_time 0
proto_binary_fetched_datetime 0
proto_binary_fetched_timestamp 0
proto_binary_fetched_string 0
proto_binary_fetched_json 0
proto_binary_fetched_blob 0
proto_binary_fetched_enum 0
proto_binary_fetched_set 0
proto_binary_fetched_geometry 0
proto_binary_fetched_other 0
init_command_executed_count 0
init_command_failed_count 0
com_quit 0
com_init_db 0
com_query 0
com_field_list 0
com_create_db 0
com_drop_db 0
com_refresh 0
com_shutdown 0
com_statistics 0
com_process_info 0
com_connect 0
com_process_kill 0
com_debug 0
com_ping 0
com_time 0
com_delayed_insert 0
com_change_user 0
com_binlog_dump 0
com_table_dump 0
com_connect_out 0
com_register_slave 0
com_stmt_prepare 0
com_stmt_execute 0
com_stmt_send_long_data 0
com_stmt_close 0
com_stmt_reset 0
com_stmt_set_option 0
com_stmt_fetch 0
com_deamon 0
bytes_received_real_data_normal 0
bytes_received_real_data_ps 0

openssl

OpenSSL support enabled
OpenSSL Library Version OpenSSL 1.1.1d 10 Sep 2019
OpenSSL Header Version OpenSSL 1.1.1g 21 Apr 2020
Openssl default config /opt/bitnami/common/openssl/openssl.cnf
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
openssl.cafile/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt
openssl.capathno valueno value

pcntl

pcntl supportenabled

pcre

PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) Support enabled
PCRE Library Version 10.32 2018-09-10
PCRE Unicode Version 11.0.0
PCRE JIT Support enabled
PCRE JIT Target x86 64bit (little endian + unaligned)
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
pcre.backtrack_limit10000001000000
pcre.jit11
pcre.recursion_limit100000100000

PDO

PDO supportenabled
PDO drivers mysql, sqlite

pdo_mysql

PDO Driver for MySQLenabled
Client API version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
pdo_mysql.default_socket/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock

pdo_sqlite

PDO Driver for SQLite 3.xenabled
SQLite Library 3.32.2

Phar

Phar: PHP Archive supportenabled
Phar API version 1.1.1
Phar-based phar archives enabled
Tar-based phar archives enabled
ZIP-based phar archives enabled
gzip compression enabled
bzip2 compression enabled
OpenSSL support enabled
Phar based on pear/PHP_Archive, original concept by Davey Shafik.
Phar fully realized by Gregory Beaver and Marcus Boerger.
Portions of tar implementation Copyright (c) 2003-2009 Tim Kientzle.
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
phar.cache_listno valueno value
phar.readonlyOnOn
phar.require_hashOnOn

posix

POSIX support enabled

readline

Readline Supportenabled
Readline library 5.2
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
cli.pagerno valueno value
cli.prompt\b \> \b \> 

Reflection

Reflection enabled

session

Session Support enabled
Registered save handlers files user
Registered serializer handlers php_serialize php php_binary
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
session.auto_startOffOff
session.cache_expire180180
session.cache_limiternocachenocache
session.cookie_domainno valueno value
session.cookie_httponlyno valueno value
session.cookie_lifetime00
session.cookie_path//
session.cookie_samesiteno valueno value
session.cookie_secure00
session.gc_divisor10001000
session.gc_maxlifetime14401440
session.gc_probability11
session.lazy_writeOnOn
session.namePHPSESSIDPHPSESSID
session.referer_checkno valueno value
session.save_handlerfilesfiles
session.save_path/opt/bitnami/php/tmp/opt/bitnami/php/tmp
session.serialize_handlerphpphp
session.sid_bits_per_character55
session.sid_length2626
session.upload_progress.cleanupOnOn
session.upload_progress.enabledOnOn
session.upload_progress.freq1%1%
session.upload_progress.min_freq11
session.upload_progress.namePHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESSPHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS
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1 Veganism in Russia: the past, present and future | The Vegan Review
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Sunday, September 19, 2021

Veganism in Russia: the past, present and future

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Typically, veganism isn’t associated with Russia. However, it has significant historical ties and is becoming increasingly popular in the region.

Growing up with an amalgam of Russian and Arabic cuisines, to me, Russian cuisine could be described as somewhat modest, with staples of mushroom, potatoes, fish, meat, lentils and other vegetables. It’s comforting whilst being well-rounded and full of goodness.

With staples of meat and fish however, I never really considered veganism to be much of a thing in Russia. However, after a trip to the cultural capital St Petersburg last year, I was shocked at the huge variety of not only vegan options but dedicated vegan restaurants. When did this happen? Since when was Russian cuisine so intertwined with plant-based diets?

But the relationship between veganism and Russian cuisine stretches further back than I — and many people — realise.

The history of veganism in Russia

Andrey Beketov was a professor of Botanics and chancellor at St Petersburg University from 1876 to 1884. He published the first Russian essay on vegetarianism, moving away from treating animal foods and products as normal to seeing it as immoral but also detrimental to human health and the environment (quite a modern vegan stance) 

But veganism was also undertaken by one of the most iconic Russian figures and writers, Leo Tolstoy, who became a vegetarian and later a vegan in 1884. He published a pamphlet in 1882 describing the realities of slaughterhouses and cruelty of the meat industry. He not only advocated for veganism or ‘strict vegetarianism’ as a healthy diet, but as a step towards leading a moral life.

Tolstoy is thus regarded as a famous early advocate for veganism, but did later return to eating eggs, wearing fur and leather clothes — in the brutal Russian winters, is this a surprise?

Food culture

Just like art and literature, food culture can help reflect a political stance or landscape. The 1917 Revolution was a defining point in Russian history, leading to a fundamental reconstruction of society, removing disparities between the rich and poor. This was also applied to food culture; dishes previously prepared for aristocrats became simplified as part of a wider concept that everyone should be equal.

A typical Bolshevik dinner would be relatively simple, consisting of potatoes and a meat ‘cutlet’ (котлета in Russian), typically made from beef, white bread and onion. In harsh winters, not many foods would be available, and meat would be needed, especially when other crops wouldn’t be available. Although meat did remain a staple, there was a wealth of salads, grains and lentils that were also widely used.

Furthermore, looking at the Russian orthodox church, this involved fasting for periods of time, which would typically involve limiting meat consumption.

In food shortages, food became about sustenance and using what is available to you: many Russians also have allotments (known as огород or dacha) where they grow their own produce to be used in cooking. One of my favourite memories of summers in Belarus would be eating freshly picked cucumbers from my Grandma’s огород.

horizontal vegan st petersburg
Photo: Horizontal/Facebook

Looking into present-day, a more modern take on the plant-based diet and food culture can be seen through veganarchism. Although first coined in 1997, it is still prominent today and provides an example for how food culture enables personal empowerment and a form of political statement. Last year, the BBC discussed the Horizontal takeaway, a restaurant in St Petersburg based on social justice in equality and promoting vegan anarchism. The eatery is one of about a dozen similar spaces, using food as a moral ideology.

Is Russian cuisine vegan-friendly?

Russia is famous for its many different salads, including Russian salad (also known as Olivier salad) and vinegret. The only thing to substitute for vegans in this is to remove eggs and use vegan mayonnaise.

Furthermore, the base of many dishes are lentils, potatoes, vegetables and grains, all of which are vegan- friendly. Conservation is also a traditional trend in Russian cuisine — pickling and drying vegetables is very common. Lentils and pulses are very common — particularly buckwheat — which are not only vegan but very healthy.

Then there’s the whole avenue of Russian baking. Nothing beats the smell of fresh Pirozhki, homemade buns stuffed with comforting soul food like cabbage (don’t bash it until you try it), mushrooms and other vegetables. These can easily be made vegan without an egg wash and milk in the dough, but I can tell you the dough is just as delicious without it. 

Russian cuisine also serves a great variety of soups (perfect for winter), and most of them could be prepared as vegan versions by replacing meat with tofu or beans. A good example is the famous beetroot soup, borsch, which can be cooked with or without meat.

vegan russian dishesYulia, 17, has been a vegan for 10 months now as she “couldn’t imagine being a part of (the) horribly cruel system” of animal production. She believes being vegan lowers the demand for animal products, lowering production in the long term. However, it is also a moral stance: “It shows my social position: I’m against killing anyone just for our pleasure.”

When discussing Russian cuisine and veganism, she said: “I don’t think it’s hard to find vegan options in Russia. Of course, there won’t be any special vegan cheese or sausage selections in every shop, but buckwheat or rice are very affordable, and you can find them absolutely everywhere. Any type of beans, grains, vegetables and fruits.”

She doesn’t believe it’s a matter of there not being options, it’s a matter of attitude towards the diet: “A person who wants to do something finds opportunities, whilst a person who doesn’t finds reasons to not do it.”

Kochetova Alena, aged 24, lives in St Petersburg and disagrees with this stance. She’s been vegan for 10 years due to ethical reasons: “I love animals and didn’t want them to suffer because of my lifestyle, so I stopped eating meat when I was a teenager and renounced other animal products when I was 19.”

Alena was born in Novokuznetsk, Siberia, and travelled a lot across Russia, and “noticed that it is hard to find good quality vegan alternatives, but St Petersburg is an exception”. She explained that there are vegan cafés “on every corner of the city, and there are plenty of vegan options in other ordinary restaurants. You can buy tofu, hummus, and lots of greenery in grocery stores all year long”. Just as I felt when I visited the city, it seems St Petersburg is leading the vegan revolution in the country, with plenty of vegan options and cafes.

Russia has a deep food culture, associated with its geography, politics, and general lifestyle. Although veganism previously wasn’t as common — and many traditional recipes have meat and other animal products at its core — cities like St Petersburg are moving with the times to accommodate for a new generation of vegans.

Yasmin Jafar
Yasmin is a journalism undergraduate at City, University of London who is a massive foodie — especially for anything dessert- or coffee-based! She’s passionate about food, its history, and researching and reviewing different diets around the world.

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