PHP logo

PHP Version 7.3.18

System Linux ip-172-26-11-32 4.19.0-14-cloud-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.19.171-2 (2021-01-30) x86_64
Build Date Jun 9 2020 13:01:57
Configure Command './configure' '--prefix=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/php' '--enable-fpm' '--with-fpm-user=daemon' '--with-fpm-group=daemon' '--with-apxs2=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/apache2/bin/apxs' '--with-zlib-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-mbstring=all' '--enable-soap' '--enable-bcmath' '--enable-ftp' '--with-xmlrpc' '--enable-cgi' '--with-imap=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/src/imap-2007f' '--with-imap-ssl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-png-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gd' '--with-zlib' '--with-curl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-jpeg-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-exif' '--with-openssl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-calendar' '--enable-ctype' '--enable-pcntl' '--enable-session' '--enable-zip' '--with-bz2=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-sockets' '--with-mcrypt=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-icu-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-tidy=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-mysqli=mysqlnd' '--with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd' '--with-pdo_sqlite=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/sqlite' '--with-sqlite3=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/sqlite' '--with-iconv=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-libxml-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-xsl=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--enable-mbstring' '--with-freetype-dir=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gmp=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-gettext' '--enable-intl' '--with-readline=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-libzip=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--with-ldap=/bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/common' '--disable-huge-code-pages'
Server API FPM/FastCGI
Virtual Directory Support disabled
Configuration File (php.ini) Path /bitnami/lamp73stack-linux-x64/output/php/lib
Loaded Configuration File /opt/bitnami/php/etc/php.ini
Scan this dir for additional .ini files (none)
Additional .ini files parsed (none)
PHP API 20180731
PHP Extension 20180731
Zend Extension 320180731
Zend Extension Build API320180731,NTS
PHP Extension Build API20180731,NTS
Debug Build no
Thread Safety disabled
Zend Signal Handling enabled
Zend Memory Manager enabled
Zend Multibyte Support provided by mbstring
IPv6 Support enabled
DTrace Support disabled
Registered PHP Streamshttps, ftps, compress.zlib, compress.bzip2, php, file, glob, data, http, ftp, phar, zip
Registered Stream Socket Transportstcp, udp, unix, udg, ssl, tls, tlsv1.0, tlsv1.1, tlsv1.2
Registered Stream Filterszlib.*, bzip2.*, convert.iconv.*, string.rot13, string.toupper, string.tolower, string.strip_tags, convert.*, consumed, dechunk
Zend logo This program makes use of the Zend Scripting Language Engine:
Zend Engine v3.3.18, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies
    with Zend OPcache v7.3.18, Copyright (c) 1999-2018, by Zend Technologies

Configuration

bcmath

BCMath support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
bcmath.scale00

bz2

BZip2 Support Enabled
Stream Wrapper support compress.bzip2://
Stream Filter support bzip2.decompress, bzip2.compress
BZip2 Version 1.0.6, 6-Sept-2010

calendar

Calendar support enabled

cgi-fcgi

php-fpm active
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
cgi.discard_path00
cgi.fix_pathinfo11
cgi.force_redirect11
cgi.nph00
cgi.redirect_status_envno valueno value
cgi.rfc2616_headers00
fastcgi.error_headerno valueno value
fastcgi.logging11
fpm.configno valueno value

Core

PHP Version 7.3.18
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
allow_url_fopenOnOn
allow_url_includeOffOff
arg_separator.input&&
arg_separator.output&&
auto_append_fileno valueno value
auto_globals_jitOnOn
auto_prepend_fileno valueno value
browscapno valueno value
default_charsetUTF-8UTF-8
default_mimetypetext/htmltext/html
disable_classesno valueno value
disable_functionsno valueno value
display_errorsOffOff
display_startup_errorsOffOff
doc_rootno valueno value
docref_extno valueno value
docref_rootno valueno value
enable_dlOffOff
enable_post_data_readingOnOn
error_append_stringno valueno value
error_logno valueno value
error_prepend_stringno valueno value
error_reporting498322527
expose_phpOnOn
extension_dir/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php/extensions/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php/extensions
file_uploadsOnOn
hard_timeout22
highlight.comment#FF8000#FF8000
highlight.default#0000BB#0000BB
highlight.html#000000#000000
highlight.keyword#007700#007700
highlight.string#DD0000#DD0000
html_errorsOnOn
ignore_repeated_errorsOffOff
ignore_repeated_sourceOffOff
ignore_user_abortOffOff
implicit_flushOffOff
include_path.:/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php.:/opt/bitnami/php/lib/php
input_encodingno valueno value
internal_encodingno valueno value
log_errorsOnOn
log_errors_max_len10241024
mail.add_x_headerOffOff
mail.force_extra_parametersno valueno value
mail.logno valueno value
max_execution_time120120
max_file_uploads2020
max_input_nesting_level6464
max_input_time300300
max_input_vars10001000
memory_limit512M512M
open_basedirno valueno value
output_buffering40964096
output_encodingno valueno value
output_handlerno valueno value
post_max_size40M40M
precision1414
realpath_cache_size4096K4096K
realpath_cache_ttl120120
register_argc_argvOffOff
report_memleaksOnOn
report_zend_debugOnOn
request_orderGPGP
sendmail_fromno valueno value
sendmail_path/usr/bin/sendmail -t -i /usr/bin/sendmail -t -i 
serialize_precision-1-1
short_open_tagOffOff
SMTPlocalhostlocalhost
smtp_port2525
sys_temp_dirno valueno value
syslog.facilityLOG_USERLOG_USER
syslog.filterno-ctrlno-ctrl
syslog.identphpphp
track_errorsOffOff
unserialize_callback_funcno valueno value
upload_max_filesize40M40M
upload_tmp_dir/opt/bitnami/php/tmp/opt/bitnami/php/tmp
user_dirno valueno value
user_ini.cache_ttl300300
user_ini.filename.user.ini.user.ini
variables_orderGPCSGPCS
xmlrpc_error_number00
xmlrpc_errorsOffOff
zend.assertions-1-1
zend.detect_unicodeOnOn
zend.enable_gcOnOn
zend.multibyteOffOff
zend.script_encodingno valueno value
zend.signal_checkOffOff

ctype

ctype functions enabled

curl

cURL support enabled
cURL Information 7.70.0
Age 6
Features
AsynchDNS Yes
CharConv No
Debug No
GSS-Negotiate No
IDN No
IPv6 Yes
krb4 No
Largefile Yes
libz Yes
NTLM Yes
NTLMWB Yes
SPNEGO No
SSL Yes
SSPI No
TLS-SRP Yes
HTTP2 No
GSSAPI No
KERBEROS5 No
UNIX_SOCKETS Yes
PSL No
HTTPS_PROXY Yes
MULTI_SSL No
BROTLI No
Protocols dict, file, ftp, ftps, gopher, http, https, imap, imaps, ldap, ldaps, pop3, pop3s, rtsp, smb, smbs, smtp, smtps, telnet, tftp
Host x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
SSL Version OpenSSL/1.1.1d
ZLib Version 1.2.11
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
curl.cainfo/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt

date

date/time support enabled
timelib version 2018.03
"Olson" Timezone Database Version 2020.1
Timezone Database internal
Default timezone UTC
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
date.default_latitude31.766731.7667
date.default_longitude35.233335.2333
date.sunrise_zenith90.58333390.583333
date.sunset_zenith90.58333390.583333
date.timezoneUTCUTC

dom

DOM/XML enabled
DOM/XML API Version 20031129
libxml Version 2.9.4
HTML Support enabled
XPath Support enabled
XPointer Support enabled
Schema Support enabled
RelaxNG Support enabled

exif

EXIF Support enabled
Supported EXIF Version 0220
Supported filetypes JPEG, TIFF
Multibyte decoding support using mbstring enabled
Extended EXIF tag formats Canon, Casio, Fujifilm, Nikon, Olympus, Samsung, Panasonic, DJI, Sony, Pentax, Minolta, Sigma, Foveon, Kyocera, Ricoh, AGFA, Epson
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
exif.decode_jis_intelJISJIS
exif.decode_jis_motorolaJISJIS
exif.decode_unicode_intelUCS-2LEUCS-2LE
exif.decode_unicode_motorolaUCS-2BEUCS-2BE
exif.encode_jisno valueno value
exif.encode_unicodeISO-8859-15ISO-8859-15

fileinfo

fileinfo support enabled
libmagic 533

filter

Input Validation and Filtering enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
filter.defaultunsafe_rawunsafe_raw
filter.default_flagsno valueno value

ftp

FTP support enabled
FTPS support enabled

gd

GD Support enabled
GD Version bundled (2.1.0 compatible)
FreeType Support enabled
FreeType Linkage with freetype
FreeType Version 2.4.8
GIF Read Support enabled
GIF Create Support enabled
JPEG Support enabled
libJPEG Version 8
PNG Support enabled
libPNG Version 1.5.26
WBMP Support enabled
XBM Support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
gd.jpeg_ignore_warning11

gettext

GetText Support enabled

gmp

gmp support enabled
GMP version 6.1.1

hash

hash support enabled
Hashing Engines md2 md4 md5 sha1 sha224 sha256 sha384 sha512/224 sha512/256 sha512 sha3-224 sha3-256 sha3-384 sha3-512 ripemd128 ripemd160 ripemd256 ripemd320 whirlpool tiger128,3 tiger160,3 tiger192,3 tiger128,4 tiger160,4 tiger192,4 snefru snefru256 gost gost-crypto adler32 crc32 crc32b fnv132 fnv1a32 fnv164 fnv1a64 joaat haval128,3 haval160,3 haval192,3 haval224,3 haval256,3 haval128,4 haval160,4 haval192,4 haval224,4 haval256,4 haval128,5 haval160,5 haval192,5 haval224,5 haval256,5

iconv

iconv support enabled
iconv implementation glibc
iconv library version 1.15
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
iconv.input_encodingno valueno value
iconv.internal_encodingno valueno value
iconv.output_encodingno valueno value

imagick

imagick moduleenabled
imagick module version 3.4.3
imagick classes Imagick, ImagickDraw, ImagickPixel, ImagickPixelIterator, ImagickKernel
Imagick compiled with ImageMagick version ImageMagick 6.9.8-3 Q16 x86_64 2020-06-09 http://www.imagemagick.org
Imagick using ImageMagick library version ImageMagick 6.9.8-3 Q16 x86_64 2020-06-09 http://www.imagemagick.org
ImageMagick copyright © 1999-2017 ImageMagick Studio LLC
ImageMagick release date 2020-06-09
ImageMagick number of supported formats: 226
ImageMagick supported formats 3FR, 3G2, 3GP, AAI, AI, ART, ARW, AVI, AVS, BGR, BGRA, BGRO, BMP, BMP2, BMP3, BRF, CAL, CALS, CANVAS, CAPTION, CIN, CIP, CLIP, CMYK, CMYKA, CR2, CRW, CUR, CUT, DATA, DCM, DCR, DCX, DDS, DFONT, DNG, DOT, DPX, DXT1, DXT5, EPDF, EPI, EPS, EPS2, EPS3, EPSF, EPSI, EPT, EPT2, EPT3, ERF, FAX, FILE, FITS, FRACTAL, FTP, FTS, G3, G4, GIF, GIF87, GRADIENT, GRAY, GROUP4, GV, H, HALD, HDR, HISTOGRAM, HRZ, HTM, HTML, HTTP, HTTPS, ICB, ICO, ICON, IIQ, INFO, INLINE, IPL, ISOBRL, ISOBRL6, JNG, JNX, JPE, JPEG, JPG, JPS, JSON, K25, KDC, LABEL, M2V, M4V, MAC, MAGICK, MAP, MASK, MAT, MATTE, MEF, MIFF, MKV, MNG, MONO, MOV, MP4, MPC, MPEG, MPG, MRW, MSL, MSVG, MTV, MVG, NEF, NRW, NULL, ORF, OTB, OTF, PAL, PALM, PAM, PANGO, PATTERN, PBM, PCD, PCDS, PCL, PCT, PCX, PDB, PDF, PDFA, PEF, PES, PFA, PFB, PFM, PGM, PICON, PICT, PIX, PJPEG, PLASMA, PNG, PNG00, PNG24, PNG32, PNG48, PNG64, PNG8, PNM, PPM, PREVIEW, PS, PS2, PS3, PSB, PSD, PTIF, PWP, RADIAL-GRADIENT, RAF, RAS, RAW, RGB, RGBA, RGBO, RGF, RLA, RLE, RMF, RW2, SCR, SCT, SFW, SGI, SHTML, SIX, SIXEL, SPARSE-COLOR, SR2, SRF, STEGANO, SUN, SVG, SVGZ, TEXT, TGA, THUMBNAIL, TIFF, TIFF64, TILE, TIM, TTC, TTF, TXT, UBRL, UBRL6, UIL, UYVY, VDA, VICAR, VID, VIFF, VIPS, VST, WBMP, WEBP, WMF, WMV, WMZ, WPG, X3F, XBM, XC, XCF, XPM, XPS, XV, YCbCr, YCbCrA, YUV
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
imagick.locale_fix00
imagick.progress_monitor00
imagick.skip_version_check00

imap

IMAP c-Client Version 2007f
SSL Support enabled
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
imap.enable_insecure_rshOffOff

intl

Internationalization supportenabled
ICU version 66.1
ICU Data version 66.1
ICU TZData version 2019c
ICU Unicode version 13.0
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
intl.default_localeno valueno value
intl.error_level00
intl.use_exceptions00

json

json support enabled
json version 1.7.0

ldap

LDAP Support enabled
Total Links 0/unlimited
API Version 3001
Vendor Name OpenLDAP
Vendor Version 20423
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
ldap.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited

libxml

libXML support active
libXML Compiled Version 2.9.4
libXML Loaded Version 20904
libXML streams enabled

mbstring

Multibyte Support enabled
Multibyte string engine libmbfl
HTTP input encoding translation disabled
libmbfl version 1.3.2
oniguruma version 6.9.4
mbstring extension makes use of "streamable kanji code filter and converter", which is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1.
Multibyte (japanese) regex support enabled
Multibyte regex (oniguruma) backtrack check On
Multibyte regex (oniguruma) version 6.9.4
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mbstring.detect_orderno valueno value
mbstring.encoding_translationOffOff
mbstring.func_overload00
mbstring.http_inputno valueno value
mbstring.http_outputno valueno value
mbstring.http_output_conv_mimetypes^(text/|application/xhtml\+xml)^(text/|application/xhtml\+xml)
mbstring.internal_encodingno valueno value
mbstring.languageneutralneutral
mbstring.regex_stack_limit100000100000
mbstring.strict_detectionOffOff
mbstring.substitute_characterno valueno value

mysqli

MysqlI Supportenabled
Client API library version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
Active Persistent Links 0
Inactive Persistent Links 0
Active Links 0
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
mysqli.allow_local_infileOffOff
mysqli.allow_persistentOnOn
mysqli.default_hostno valueno value
mysqli.default_port33063306
mysqli.default_pwno valueno value
mysqli.default_socket/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock
mysqli.default_userno valueno value
mysqli.max_linksUnlimitedUnlimited
mysqli.max_persistentUnlimitedUnlimited
mysqli.reconnectOffOff
mysqli.rollback_on_cached_plinkOffOff

mysqlnd

mysqlndenabled
Version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
Compression supported
core SSL supported
extended SSL supported
Command buffer size 4096
Read buffer size 32768
Read timeout 86400
Collecting statistics Yes
Collecting memory statistics No
Tracing n/a
Loaded plugins mysqlnd,debug_trace,auth_plugin_mysql_native_password,auth_plugin_mysql_clear_password,auth_plugin_sha256_password
API Extensions mysqli,pdo_mysql
mysqlnd statistics
bytes_sent 0
bytes_received 0
packets_sent 0
packets_received 0
protocol_overhead_in 0
protocol_overhead_out 0
bytes_received_ok_packet 0
bytes_received_eof_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_header_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_field_meta_packet 0
bytes_received_rset_row_packet 0
bytes_received_prepare_response_packet 0
bytes_received_change_user_packet 0
packets_sent_command 0
packets_received_ok 0
packets_received_eof 0
packets_received_rset_header 0
packets_received_rset_field_meta 0
packets_received_rset_row 0
packets_received_prepare_response 0
packets_received_change_user 0
result_set_queries 0
non_result_set_queries 0
no_index_used 0
bad_index_used 0
slow_queries 0
buffered_sets 0
unbuffered_sets 0
ps_buffered_sets 0
ps_unbuffered_sets 0
flushed_normal_sets 0
flushed_ps_sets 0
ps_prepared_never_executed 0
ps_prepared_once_executed 0
rows_fetched_from_server_normal 0
rows_fetched_from_server_ps 0
rows_buffered_from_client_normal 0
rows_buffered_from_client_ps 0
rows_fetched_from_client_normal_buffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_normal_unbuffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_buffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_unbuffered 0
rows_fetched_from_client_ps_cursor 0
rows_affected_normal 0
rows_affected_ps 0
rows_skipped_normal 0
rows_skipped_ps 0
copy_on_write_saved 0
copy_on_write_performed 0
command_buffer_too_small 0
connect_success 0
connect_failure 0
connection_reused 0
reconnect 0
pconnect_success 0
active_connections 0
active_persistent_connections 0
explicit_close 0
implicit_close 0
disconnect_close 0
in_middle_of_command_close 0
explicit_free_result 0
implicit_free_result 0
explicit_stmt_close 0
implicit_stmt_close 0
mem_emalloc_count 0
mem_emalloc_amount 0
mem_ecalloc_count 0
mem_ecalloc_amount 0
mem_erealloc_count 0
mem_erealloc_amount 0
mem_efree_count 0
mem_efree_amount 0
mem_malloc_count 0
mem_malloc_amount 0
mem_calloc_count 0
mem_calloc_amount 0
mem_realloc_count 0
mem_realloc_amount 0
mem_free_count 0
mem_free_amount 0
mem_estrndup_count 0
mem_strndup_count 0
mem_estrdup_count 0
mem_strdup_count 0
mem_edupl_count 0
mem_dupl_count 0
proto_text_fetched_null 0
proto_text_fetched_bit 0
proto_text_fetched_tinyint 0
proto_text_fetched_short 0
proto_text_fetched_int24 0
proto_text_fetched_int 0
proto_text_fetched_bigint 0
proto_text_fetched_decimal 0
proto_text_fetched_float 0
proto_text_fetched_double 0
proto_text_fetched_date 0
proto_text_fetched_year 0
proto_text_fetched_time 0
proto_text_fetched_datetime 0
proto_text_fetched_timestamp 0
proto_text_fetched_string 0
proto_text_fetched_blob 0
proto_text_fetched_enum 0
proto_text_fetched_set 0
proto_text_fetched_geometry 0
proto_text_fetched_other 0
proto_binary_fetched_null 0
proto_binary_fetched_bit 0
proto_binary_fetched_tinyint 0
proto_binary_fetched_short 0
proto_binary_fetched_int24 0
proto_binary_fetched_int 0
proto_binary_fetched_bigint 0
proto_binary_fetched_decimal 0
proto_binary_fetched_float 0
proto_binary_fetched_double 0
proto_binary_fetched_date 0
proto_binary_fetched_year 0
proto_binary_fetched_time 0
proto_binary_fetched_datetime 0
proto_binary_fetched_timestamp 0
proto_binary_fetched_string 0
proto_binary_fetched_json 0
proto_binary_fetched_blob 0
proto_binary_fetched_enum 0
proto_binary_fetched_set 0
proto_binary_fetched_geometry 0
proto_binary_fetched_other 0
init_command_executed_count 0
init_command_failed_count 0
com_quit 0
com_init_db 0
com_query 0
com_field_list 0
com_create_db 0
com_drop_db 0
com_refresh 0
com_shutdown 0
com_statistics 0
com_process_info 0
com_connect 0
com_process_kill 0
com_debug 0
com_ping 0
com_time 0
com_delayed_insert 0
com_change_user 0
com_binlog_dump 0
com_table_dump 0
com_connect_out 0
com_register_slave 0
com_stmt_prepare 0
com_stmt_execute 0
com_stmt_send_long_data 0
com_stmt_close 0
com_stmt_reset 0
com_stmt_set_option 0
com_stmt_fetch 0
com_deamon 0
bytes_received_real_data_normal 0
bytes_received_real_data_ps 0

openssl

OpenSSL support enabled
OpenSSL Library Version OpenSSL 1.1.1d 10 Sep 2019
OpenSSL Header Version OpenSSL 1.1.1g 21 Apr 2020
Openssl default config /opt/bitnami/common/openssl/openssl.cnf
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
openssl.cafile/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt/opt/bitnami/common/openssl/certs/curl-ca-bundle.crt
openssl.capathno valueno value

pcntl

pcntl supportenabled

pcre

PCRE (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) Support enabled
PCRE Library Version 10.32 2018-09-10
PCRE Unicode Version 11.0.0
PCRE JIT Support enabled
PCRE JIT Target x86 64bit (little endian + unaligned)
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
pcre.backtrack_limit10000001000000
pcre.jit11
pcre.recursion_limit100000100000

PDO

PDO supportenabled
PDO drivers mysql, sqlite

pdo_mysql

PDO Driver for MySQLenabled
Client API version mysqlnd 5.0.12-dev - 20150407 - $Id: 7cc7cc96e675f6d72e5cf0f267f48e167c2abb23 $
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
pdo_mysql.default_socket/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock/opt/bitnami/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock

pdo_sqlite

PDO Driver for SQLite 3.xenabled
SQLite Library 3.32.2

Phar

Phar: PHP Archive supportenabled
Phar API version 1.1.1
Phar-based phar archives enabled
Tar-based phar archives enabled
ZIP-based phar archives enabled
gzip compression enabled
bzip2 compression enabled
OpenSSL support enabled
Phar based on pear/PHP_Archive, original concept by Davey Shafik.
Phar fully realized by Gregory Beaver and Marcus Boerger.
Portions of tar implementation Copyright (c) 2003-2009 Tim Kientzle.
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
phar.cache_listno valueno value
phar.readonlyOnOn
phar.require_hashOnOn

posix

POSIX support enabled

readline

Readline Supportenabled
Readline library 5.2
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
cli.pagerno valueno value
cli.prompt\b \> \b \> 

Reflection

Reflection enabled

session

Session Support enabled
Registered save handlers files user
Registered serializer handlers php_serialize php php_binary
DirectiveLocal ValueMaster Value
session.auto_startOffOff
session.cache_expire180180
session.cache_limiternocachenocache
session.cookie_domainno valueno value
session.cookie_httponlyno valueno value
session.cookie_lifetime00
session.cookie_path//
session.cookie_samesiteno valueno value
session.cookie_secure00
session.gc_divisor10001000
session.gc_maxlifetime14401440
session.gc_probability11
session.lazy_writeOnOn
session.namePHPSESSIDPHPSESSID
session.referer_checkno valueno value
session.save_handlerfilesfiles
session.save_path/opt/bitnami/php/tmp/opt/bitnami/php/tmp
session.serialize_handlerphpphp
session.sid_bits_per_character55
session.sid_length2626
session.upload_progress.cleanupOnOn
session.upload_progress.enabledOnOn
session.upload_progress.freq1%1%
session.upload_progress.min_freq11
session.upload_progress.namePHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESSPHP_SESSION_UPLOAD_PROGRESS
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PHP Credits

PHP Group
Thies C. Arntzen, Stig Bakken, Shane Caraveo, Andi Gutmans, Rasmus Lerdorf, Sam Ruby, Sascha Schumann, Zeev Suraski, Jim Winstead, Andrei Zmievski
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Andi Gutmans, Rasmus Lerdorf, Zeev Suraski, Marcus Boerger
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ContributionAuthors
Zend Scripting Language Engine Andi Gutmans, Zeev Suraski, Stanislav Malyshev, Marcus Boerger, Dmitry Stogov, Xinchen Hui, Nikita Popov
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UNIX Build and Modularization Stig Bakken, Sascha Schumann, Jani Taskinen
Windows Support Shane Caraveo, Zeev Suraski, Wez Furlong, Pierre-Alain Joye, Anatol Belski, Kalle Sommer Nielsen
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PHP Data Objects Layer Wez Furlong, Marcus Boerger, Sterling Hughes, George Schlossnagle, Ilia Alshanetsky
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Apache 2.0 Handler Ian Holsman, Justin Erenkrantz (based on Apache 2.0 Filter code)
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BC Math Andi Gutmans
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enchant Pierre-Alain Joye, Ilia Alshanetsky
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fileinfo Ilia Alshanetsky, Pierre Alain Joye, Scott MacVicar, Derick Rethans, Anatol Belski
Firebird driver for PDO Ard Biesheuvel
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Multibyte String Functions Tsukada Takuya, Rui Hirokawa
MySQL driver for PDO George Schlossnagle, Wez Furlong, Ilia Alshanetsky, Johannes Schlueter
MySQLi Zak Greant, Georg Richter, Andrey Hristov, Ulf Wendel
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SQLite 3.x driver for PDO Wez Furlong
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tidy John Coggeshall, Ilia Alshanetsky
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1 How vegan cheese producers are replicating dairy | The Vegan Review
9.4 C
Munich
Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Filling the cheese gap: how vegan cheese producers are replicating dairy

What is it about cheese that is so hard to replicate, and how are vegan companies rising to the challenge of matching the taste and texture of this non-vegan staple to please discerning cheese-lovers?

In a recent UK survey ahead of Veganuary, 56% of adults said their love of cheese was stopping them going vegan. And in a list of 40 foods that Brits would miss if they went plant-based, cheese came top. On the plus side, 39% said they would try more plant-based foods if they couldn’t taste a difference from the non-vegan originals.

The Good Food Institute says the plant-based cheese industry is ripe for disruption. In the US, 2.9% of households buy plant-based cheese compared to 95% that buy conventional cheese. It predicts a groundswell of innovation that will bring vegan cheese closer to conventional cheese and prompt more people to choose it.

Dr Mark Auty is a research principal in food microstructure at Reading Scientific Services Limited (RSSL). He works with food innovators to develop marketable products. He explains that cheese is formed by coagulating casein, a protein found in mammalian milk, with rennet and/or acid.

The main purpose of casein is to deliver calcium to newborn offspring, for their bone development. Rennet was originally derived from a calf’s stomach, but its active enzyme, chymosin, can also be obtained from plants, fungi and more genetically modified microorganisms. Renneted casein is combined with lactic acid bacteria and separates, forming lumps that can be moulded into blocks.

vegan cheese uk“There is a lot of complicated biochemistry that goes into making cheese. Hard table cheeses like cheddar or gouda are especially difficult to copy,” explains Auty. “You use a starter culture of bacteria to metabolise the milk. The lactose in the milk is broken down into lactones, which create some of the aroma and flavour. You’ve also got enzymes: lipases that break down fats and proteases that break down proteins into a complex ‘soup’ of flavour and aroma compounds. All these things combine to give you that umami, savoury flavour that is difficult to describe but you know it when you taste it.

“The other major challenge is the texture, which is what makes cheese cheesy, the breakdown in the mouth and formation of an emulsion creating a creaminess. It also affects how the flavours are released and is very hard to copy. That is why some vegan cheeses have been described as chalky or pasty.”

Cheddar, which needs to ripen for between a month and a year, is the most difficult cheese to replicate. “In my opinion, vegan options that work well are the ones like feta or cottage cheese, as well as spicy and smoky products with strong flavours, like the smoky Applewood Vegan.”

Applewood Vegan is one of several coconut oil-based products in UK supermarkets, along with Koko Dairy-free Cheddar, Bute Island Sheese and Violife. The latter is a 100% vegan company that has made vegan cheese since the 1990s.

Simon Orchard is UK and Ireland country manager for Violife. He says the brand’s cheddar is one of its bestsellers: “Our multi-award winning Epic Mature Cheddar Flavour block is hugely popular with both plant-based eaters and flexitarians, as it tastes and behaves like the real thing. It grates, melts and slices just like it should. It is one of the category’s top-selling innovations, delivering nearly £1m in value sales in less than a year.”

cashew cheeseInnovative artisanal companies are also challenging the perception that vegan cheese is bland. Cashew-based soft French-style cheeses have been perfected by UK brands Food by Sumear, Bath Culture House and Mouse’s Favourite, while Dutch producer Willicroft uses cashews, coconut oil and soya beans.

Read our interview with Sumear-Safdar Robins.

Carole Bingley is a senior associate principal scientist at RSSL and works on the research and development of vegan foods. She says there is a gap in the market, which is vegan cheeses that share a similar nutritional profile to dairy ones.

Dairy cheese is protein-based, but many vegan cheeses are more starch and fat-based. It would be good to see more protein-based vegan products. The development of cheese alternatives with a comparable protein content to dairy cheese would be a huge breakthrough in this sector.

Check out how the grandson of an ex-dairy farmer launched Willicroft vegan cheese.

One company leading the way is the’artyvegan, a father and daughter operation in east London. They craft soya beans into Smokey Muenster, Tofucotta, Miso Brie, Melty Mozza and more. Founder Ellora Torchia says: “Customers have been amazed by how melty our cheese is. Any waste soya bean pulp gets put into sourdough bread, as being low waste is really important to us.”

She adds: We encourage people to bring their own containers and we use Grounded Packaging, who check that their materials are home compostable. We are experimenting with using locally grown legumes instead of soya beans as this will reduce our carbon footprint further. The main challenge for us now is scaling up, but we are excited and are opening a second zero-waste shop in Islington, and we are doing nationwide deliveries.” 

Bingley predicts the next innovation will be the use of whey protein and casein produced through fermentation, enabling vegan cheese alternatives to more closely match dairy. She says: “There is a huge amount of innovation in cell-cultured and fermented proteins. Proteins produced through fermentation will allow vegan cheese to better replicate the flavour, texture and nutritional profile of dairy cheese. In the US, microbial fermentation is getting a lot of investment and I think we will see more products coming to market in the next few years.”

Read our conversation with the father-daughter duo behind the’artyvegan.

Bingley also forecasts a growth in products that don’t mimic cheese but fill the same space on the plate. “We are working on vegetable-based foods that can be used in a sandwich or as a topping, where we are not trying to recreate cheese but making something that does the same job.”

soy cheeseAnimal-free milk proteins are already being produced by the Perfect Day company in California. With partners, it has launched an ice cream and will soon launch a cream cheese. Nikki Briggs, Perfect Day’s vice-president of corporate communications says it’s a new category in the market, which appeals to both dairy lovers and plant-based fans.

“Using microflora, we make animal-free milk proteins — casein and whey — that are nutritionally identical to those in cow’s milk,” she explains. “Perfect Day guides its microflora to act like a cow by giving it a special ‘blueprint’ that allows tiny organisms to ferment sugar and create real dairy proteins. It is the same safe, well-established technology used to make vitamins and probiotics.”

She adds: “Because the proteins are identical to those in cow’s milk, they deliver the same creamy, melty, silky taste and texture of conventional dairy. The next thing we’re bringing to market is cream cheese, and we’re looking at more options in the dairy aisle including cheese, yoghurt, milk, and butter.”

Explore our Ultimate Guide to vegan cheese in the UK.

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